hopsbrasil hints 2

What is pH?
pH stands for potential hydrogen. The H in pH is always a capitol letter because it stands for the element Hydrogen. The term was first used by a Danish biochemist Søren Peter Lauritz Sørensen in 1909. pH is actually the level of Hydrogen ions in a solution.
The scientific formula is pH = -log[H+]. negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion????
You say ‘huh’? Me too..
No need to explain the science. Better to explain the practical use and need for pH.
So what is pH actually and why is it so important to us hops growers?
PH is the measure of acidity, neutrality or alkalinity in a solution or mixture. The pH level can be 0-14. Zero is very acidic, 14 is very basic or alkaline. 7.0 is considered neutral. Distilled water is pH 7.0.
The pH scale is exponential. Which means that a solution with pH of 4.0 is 10 times more acidic than a solution with pH of 5.0. And a solution at pH 3.0 is 100 times more acidic than a solution at 5.0.
An example of something very acidic would be lemon juice which has a pH of about 2.0.
Something ver basic would be bleach at 13.0.
And coffee at 5.0 would be 1000 times less acidic than lemon juice at 2.0 !!
This chart shows why the proper ph is important for hops. it shows at what pH certain elements can be absorbed by your plants. As you can see a pH between 6.0 and 7.0 is ideal.
Although there are certain varieties of hops (and other plants)that prefer slightly more acidic water and soils, at our hopyards, we use 6.2-6.5 pH for our soil and our water. At those levels, all nutrients can be absorbed quite well by the roots of our plants.
One of the biggest mistakes we can make is to use water with an incorrect pH.
I cannot express how important it is to test (SEE tip #1B) and, if needed, to adjust the pH of your water! (SEE tip #1B)

hopsbrasil hints 3

The pH level of the water that you use for your hops is very important. (SEE tip #1). It is very important to test and adjust the pH of your water prior to use with your hops.
There are lots of inexpensive kits that are available to check the pH of your water if needed.
The simplest form of pH test kit will have small strips of paper that you detach and then wet. When wet, the strips turn color depending on the pH of the solution. We then compare the color of the strip to a standard pH color chart to determine the actual pH of your solution. PH color charts are always included in test kits also. There are also other similar kits with small separate plastic strips that are used in the same way.
Another type of simple kit gives a test liquid and a small vial.
By placing your water to be tested in the vial and mixing with a small amount of the test liquid, the clear water will turn color. In the same way, you can compare the colored water to a pH color chart to deduce it’s pH.
There are other electronic pH measuring tools with costs starting at about 10 dollars US. And there are machines that are extremely accurate that costs 1000’s of dollars. I would not recommend these very cheap tools as they can be very unreliable. and the very expensive tools are unnecessary(unless you are very serious about growing and testing your water very accurately).
It is good to check with others and online for advice and for information about a good brand of electronic pH tester before making the investment.
Electronic testers usually come with a “ standard pH kit”. This kit contains a three different powders of known pH which when mixed with distilled water can be tested to verify the accuracy the accuracy of your ph tests and testers.
There are also pH standard kits that come in a pre-mixed liquid form.
It would be a good idea to keep a kit handy to verify all of your pH testers! A typical pH standard kit will have an ácidos solution, an alkaline solution and one neutral solution with pH of 7.0. By testing the pH of each solution, you will know if your test equipment is accurate, be it simple test strips or a more expensive electronic tester. The better electronic machines actually allow you to calibrate the tester by using a “pH standard kit” as a guide.
Now you know how to test the pH of your water, it is time to adjust the pH of your water!
(SEE tip #1B)

hopsbrasil hints

Now that you know what pH is (SEE tip #1), and you know how to test the pH of your water (SEE tip #1A), it is time to adjust the pH of your water!
You may want to adjust the pH of your water to 6.2-6.5, which is what we use in our hopyards. In order to do this you must add to your existing water a very alkaline liquid to raise your pH or a very acidic liquid to lower your pH.
Kits can be bought which supply these high alkaline or high acidic solutions. Usually just a few drops of one of the solutions in the kit will adjust the pH quickly.
It is also possible to adjust the pH of your water organically and without purchasing a pH test kit. The pH of your water can also be adjusted using common household/ grocery store items.
By adding lemon juice, the pH of your water will drop. By adding baking soda ( sodium bicarbonate), the pH of your water will rise.
Testing the pH of your water is very simple and very easy. Do not skip this important step !
Although testing pH yourself is highly recommended , it is always best to have a complete water tested at a laboratory and to have the full results reviewed by an agronomist.

hopsbrasil hints

Why aren’t all my plants leaving dormancy at the same time ???

The time and day your plant leaves dormancy depends on a few things.

1. First depends on the variety. All varieties of hop plants sprout at different times each year.
2. Second depends on the climate outside, and the temperature of the soil. Each variety of hops will sprout when a root zone reaches a certain temperature. Keep in mind that some areas, although it gets hot during the day in the spring, at night, it still remains cold. This can delay the soil to reach the right temperature at which the plant begins to germinate.
3. Third depends more on the cold and not on the heat. It is really a lack of cold here in Warm areas that is part of the problem that hop plants are not all breaking dormancy at the same time. Vernalization usually occurs each year in cold areas typical of hop cultivation. During vernalization, your plant undergoes biological changes and redefines the state of growth due to this cold season. This occurs best at temperatures below 2 C for a minimum of one month (preferably two). The new buds are also created for next year’s growth. Herron many warm places in the world this is almost impossible. There are places where it gets very warm during the mid-winter for a week and your plant can sprout very early ..only to cool again. Your plant is half confused due to the seasons not being vey defined. The lack of thorough vernalization may be part of the reason why your plants don’t all sprout at the same time in the spring.

4. Fourth, and possibly the most important, is the treatment given to your plants the prior year after harvest. Some of these things can be done to help your plants sprout stronger and more consistently in the coming spring. (SEE TIP # 11-POST HARVEST).

Now want to know what you can do to help your plants in the spring? Stay tuned for tip # 2A !!

hopsbrasil hints 4

What are the similarities and differences between plantlets made from cuttings and plantlets made from rhyzomes.

First I will explain the similarities:

A cutting and a rhizome are small pieces of a hops plant. Both are genetically identical to their mother or father plant. They both can be removed from another plant and when replanted, will grow into a 100% clone of the mother or father plant.

Now the Differences:

A cutting is a small piece of a branch from a female hop plant that has atleast one leaf node. Typically, they are cut from the newest part of the plant’s growth. Branches are typically cut from the mother plant and then sections typically of 2”- 6” in length that have atleast one leaf node are prepared and then placed in water or soil to sprout roots and grow.
A rhizome is a small piece of root from a mature female hop plant that has atleast one node sprouting. Rhyzomes can grow up to 10 feet in length in one year ! They are typically 1.5-3 cm in diameter when removed from the ground. They are cut in sections of 10-20 cm in length and then placed in the soil to sprout or they can be stored for future planting.

Cuttings can be harvested from a plant in the first year. When a mother plant is large, it is possible to make 100’s of cuttings from one plant throughout the growing season.
Rhyzomes should not be harvested until the plant’s third year of growth. They typically can only be harvested from plants during their dormant period. Most farms harvest rhyzomes only once a year very early in the Spring prior to the plants sprouting. Although some hops varieties like Canadien Redvine, may grow up to 100 rhyzomes each year, most varieties grow only between 5 -20. This limits the amount of new plants that can be made from each mother plant.

Cuttings are much more fragile than rhizomes when they are new and can be more difficult to grow, especially when small. At first a cutting has only a very small and thin stem and they virtually no root system to absorb water efficiently. It is very easy for cuttings to dry out and die. When a cutting sprouts, they are very thin and fragile.
The structure of a rhizome is much larger and older than a cutting and also much stronger. They are basically a small water reservoir. It is actually possible to kill a rhyzome from excess of water. When a rhizome sprouts, the stems are much thicker and stronger than a cuttings.

Cuttings should be planted in a controlled environment to allow a root system to grown prior to planting in the field.
Rizomas can be planted immediately.

Cuttings are much easier to diagnose problems with disease or insects.
Rhyzomes are very difficult to diagnose problems with disease and insects.

Although rhyzomes do have certain advantages to cuttings for the ease of new plant propagation, most times it is impossible to diagnose problems with disease, virus and insects when propagating new plants using rhyzomes.
One of the biggest sources historically of hops disease and fungus spread in hops plantations in the world is use of rhyzomes made from diseased mother plants in order to propagate new hops farms.
Rhyzomes are notorious for carrying undetectable hops virus, powdery and downy mildew, nematóides and other hops destroying insects.
A strong hops cutting that is well grown by a reputable grower using clean mother plant stock is always a better option than a rhyzome. And sometimes plantlets made from cuttings will even grow rhyzomes while still a small muda!!

HOPSPRO TIP # 04 - Make hops a part of the family
hopsbrasil hints

One important thing to consider if you want to grow hops on a large or small scale is the time involved. Especially, starting in the early years, when you have to do everything … and with little help.
Plan the hopyard, build the structure, irrigation system, fertilizers, fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, harvest, drying, sales, and much more !!
It is very important to include our families in our hops experience. This is an excellent opportunity to teach our children about nature and to instruct them how to care for the plants and to discuss the importance of plants for the future of our planet and the conservation of the environment.
You can also show children the importance of certain insects (even if mom doesn’t agree) haha. My little girl loves earthworms, they are just like pets to her!
And on those hard long days trying to spray the product before the rain comes, and you feel tired and horrible … don’t forget all those who are at home always waiting for you with care and love !!!
Never forget your wife or husband, who is doing everything so that you have more time to take care of the responsibilities that the hops demand, partnership is necessary.
It is very important to provide opportunities to include the whole family, because during the harvest, you will want them to help !!! Haha.
Seriously, if we can turn our work into fun and include those we love, it won’t be work anymore!

hopsbrasil dicas 1

How do you know how much water each plant needs? If you sunbathe all day until sunset, how many times would you need to have water that day? ALL DAY !!! Do you agree?

What happens to humans, also happens to plants. When they are small and during the growing season, your plant may need water every day to live.

The hop plant needs a lot of water..but at the same time it doesn’t like to always be wet !!! Hops need soil with good drainage. If you use a pot, confirm that the pot has enough drainage holes.

If you look and touch, and the soil is dry, it’s simple … water the plant.
We water our small clones at least 2 times a day in the summer when it is very hot!

Large farms water hops with an irrigation system. During the growing season your plant may need up to 12 liters per day. ( or more !)

The amount of water needed can also depend on the type of soil you have. Sandy soils will allow for better drainage than clay soils and will normally need more water.

It is always good to consult an agronomist or professional with experience with hops to help calculate your water needs.

And other tips that can help:

1. The ph (acid amount) of the ideal water should be 6.2-6.5 for hops. If you use street water, it may be good to buy a kit to correct the water ph before watering your plants. Your plant has a hard time absorbing nutrients if the water has a Ph very different from 6.2-6.5.

2. When the rhizome has not yet sprouted or if the cutting is small, we put plastic film over the pot to help stay moist inside!

3. Place your seedling / rhizome in a place where it only gets direct sun in the morning and where it gets sun indirectly all the rest of the day until your plant gets bigger !!!

4. If you use a hose, be careful not to give your plant hot water with the water inside the hose … turn on the water and wait until it comes out of the hose cool before you water the plants !!

5. If you can collect rainwater, it’s a thousand times better than street water !!

Good luck !!!!

hopsbrasil hints 1

When are my hop cones ready to harvest?
Your female hop plant will create cones that we harvest and then use to make beer. But, what date will my cones be ready to pick?
There is no exact date to pick your cones. The cones of the plants of each individual variety, in each hopyard, each year will be ready to harvest on a different date. Each case is a different situation. There is no standard.
The correct time to harvest your cones depends on the maturity of the cones.
When the cones mature, they begin to dry out along with the rest of your plant. Usually we have about five (5) days to harvest when the cones are ‘ripe’.
If you harvest too early, the cones will have less lupulin and smell of grass or weeds. If we harvest too late, the potency of the lupulin will start to degrade with age and the hops will smell like garlic or onion.
Large farms calculate and / or test their hops for what is called ‘dry matter’ in the hop cones. For simplicity, this is basically the percentage of water stored in the cone at any time.
An average dry matter at harvest time, would be about 20-23% moisture. Each variety can be a little different. in order to calculate this, you need scientific machines and you can also do at home, but it is a bit complicated and you need to use a lot of cones. (See tip # 8A)
Fortunately, for small producers there are other ways to know the correct time to harvest your cones.

These tips will help you to know the correct time by several signs:

1. The color of the petals of the cones begins to darken with some of the little tips of the petals turning a brown color.
2. When you see a cone that appears to be ripe, pay attention when you pick it from the plant. If the cone is ready, it should snap off easily. If it is difficult to remove from the plant, the cone is probably not ready.
3. After picking a cone, if you hold the cone on the tip with the two fingers of each hand and open it in halves just like peeling a banana, you can now see the yellowish lupulin inside the cone. This is where most of the oils and alpha and beta acids are inside the cones. This ‘yellow’ powder should appear an almost gold, dark color. If it’s bright and clear, it might be too early. In the last days before the cones are ready, the lupulins changes much darker.
4. If you take one of the cone halves and fold it in half, the ‘bract’ or sprig down the center will snap easily and there you know it’s ready. Otherwise, it will just fold and will not break easily.
5. If you pick up an entire cone and rub it between your fingers it should feel dry and will sound like you’re crumbling paper.
6. If you continue to rub the cone, within 10-15 seconds, the petals should start separating from the bract. In addition, you should now be able to feel the oils and resins on your fingers and your fingers will stick together slightly.
6. Perhaps the most important is the smell of the cone! You should break open a cone every few days and test the sight, feel and smell.
Before they are ready, the cones may have the scent of grass or plants. Once they become ready, they should have the smell of the individual variety, whether floral, citrus, pine, pepper or other. After a cone is past the correct picking time, it may smell oniony or garlicky.

Only after years of experience can farmers know the correct time to harvest their hops just by touch and the smell. That is why they test them. But, with these clues, small growers can get pretty close !

Remember, a plant can have cones that are immature combined with cones that are at the right time and cones that are past ripe.

It is not necessary to harvest all the cones at the same time. Often the lower cones on the plants that are more in the shade take longer to mature. These light green cones are very beautiful. But, they are not ready yet!

A cone that is past the correct time will look very brown and with more open petals. At this point, the cone is useless.

It is also very useful to keep a diary of the important dates of each plant including date you pick every year. In a few years, you may see a pattern that can help.

REMEMBER THIS !!!! Many people harvest very early! This is the biggest mistake of the new hops growers!

Good luck !!

HOPSPRO TIP # 12 - Bull shoots
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Now your plant is in the second or third year and it will sprout soon and super strong! Each year when your plant sprouts, the first shoots are very thick and they rise very quickly. These are called ‘bull shoots’. In fruit farms in Brazil, they are called the thief branches! These shoots, even though they look strong, they are very fragile. And they only steal energy from the plant and they give very little production.  How do you know if the new shoot is a ‘bull shoot’? Here are six tips to help you identify a bull shoot!

1. They are always the first sprouts to appear in spring
2. They are usually very purplish in color
3. They usually have small hairs that are very prickly
4. The distance between each pair of leaves (nodal distance) is very large
5. When bent or folded, they break very easily
6. They are hollow

Now you know how to identify a bull shoot, stay tuned for more tips on how, when, and why we cut bull shoots at the correct time !!

hopsbrasil hints 1

Cut roots/ rhyzomes. A rhyzome is a small portion of a good root that has nodes and if planted, will grow a 100% clone of the mother plant. This is only done to plants after 2 full growing seasons.
Rhyzomes and/ or roots should be cut each year prior to your plant breaking dormancy. We cut roots/rhyzomes that have extended far from the crown of our plant. The crown is the central portion of your plant that is below the ground.
It is important to do this prior to or just as your plants are sprouting each year.
We do this to also to help stop our hops plants from growing out away from the plants. Instead, we want to concentrate their energy so they grow up! This can also help so that our plants sprout more evenly in the Spring also.
Another benefit is to prevent roots of one plant from sprouting and mixing together with another plant, especially if they are different varieties.
And probably the best benefit of cutting rhyzomes is that we can take these new cut rhyzomes and plant them to make new hops plants. (SEE TIP #16)
For a small number of plants, this process can be done manually by digging straight down with a pointy shovel in a circular pattern about 8- 12 inches from the center of the hops plant. The idea is to cut all roots and rhyzomes cleanly and to seperate them from the crown of the plant. Then with a pitchfork or thin pointy shovel we gently dig in the soil outside of where we cut and as we pry up, we feel with the shovel for rhyzomes extending away from the center of the plant.
Once rhyzomes are located, we dig gently deep below the rhyzome in order to remove it gently without breaking. Rhyzomes are usually within 6 inches of the surface.
Remember, don’t be scared to use your hands and get them dirty !! The more gentle that you are, the better condition the cut rhyzomes will be.
We continue all the way around the mother plant until all rhyzomes are removed !
Do not forget to clean your shovel and/or scissors prior to using on each plant. This will help prevent the spread of disease and fungus!

HOPSPRO TIP # 18 - Sidearms !!!!!
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“My plant is branching, what do I do? Cut them? Prune them? Train to climb the string?

Do not do anything!!! We want a lot of sidearms on our plants !!

A hop plant normally produces 50% of its potential in the first year, 75% in the second year and only until the third or fourth year do we have to wait for to get 100% production from your plants!

The sidearms are very important because the more sidearms you have, the more cones you will have also! Depending on the variety, the sidearms can be from 12”” to 5’-6’ long.

Part of our breeding program includes creating varieties that branch out quicker. This may help growers in areas where daylight hours may be less than the typical 35°-55° latitude historical growing areas in the world.

We must be careful though with plants that have many large branches. Normally we should let only 2-4 bines grow up each string. This will help avoid too much shade after the plant branches. Too much shade can hinder the amount of cones that will grow on the plants.

Remember, we want to grow cones, not leaves!

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One of the saddest days I remember growing hops was that first year in 2010. I was so proud of my first two rhyzomes that had grown into 3 foot tall plants ! They were growing quickly and wrapping around a piece of bamboo at a rate of 6 inches a day !
The day came to transplant them into a larger container so they could climb up a string. As I gently removed the first plant from it’s container, I inadvertently broke the tip of the plant. I almost fainted with shock and sadness 😵😵
But, to my surprise, within a few days, my plant sprouted two new tips at the leaf node just below where the original tip had broken. In a few weeks I had two tips growing up my string !!
If you break the tip or the wind breaks the tip of your plant, no worries ! Your plant will regenerate new tips shortly! And this also sometimes will help branching ! If your plant already has branches, you can train a few of them and they will also grow up the strings.

HOPSPRO TIP # 22 - Hops seeds
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Hops seeds are not used in making beer but are usually only used for breeding purposes when making new hops varieties. Hops are dioecious, which means that they have separate male and female plants. The flower or hops cone of the female hops plant is the only portion of the hops plant used to make beer. Male hops plants have small flowers that retain the pollen that is used to pollinate female plants. If a female plant becomes pollinated, the hops cones will have seeds. ( which are undesirable for use in beer making). We intentionally introduce our males with known superior genetics to our females in order to create new hops varieties better suited for their growing environment. At times it can be pure luck because a typical new variety takes thousands of seedling trials and about 10 years to validate and bring to market!

hopsbrasil hints

Male and female hops plants? Really ?
Yes, Hops are dioecious, which means that they have separate plants with male and female genders. In other words, there are both separate male and female hops plants.
For use in making beer, only female hops plants are desired.

When hops plants are small, both male and female plants look the same. Until they are full grown and they begin to flower, their sex is indistinguishable.

Male plants, once full grown and starting to flower, will develop small ‘ balls’ which are flower pods. These flower pods evolve into small 1/4-3/8” white-yellow flowers that hang in bunches from hops plants.

Females, when flowering, will start with small white hair-like pistils. These will eventually evolve into hops cones which are the only part of the hops plant used to make beer.

If a male plant is placed near a female plant, the wind will carry the polin from the male flowers and they will germinate pistils on the female plants and the female cones will have seeds.
Although seeds are said to not be harmful for hops use in beer, they are generally not desired in your hops cones. Seeds are normally only bred intentionally to be used to make new hops varieties.

If you purchased rhyzomes and/ or hops plants from a hops farm, they are clones of the female mother plants that they came from. If treated well, they will turn out to be 100% seedless females full of cones ! Perfect to make beer !!

hopsbrasil hints 2

Some of the prettiest hops cones that you will see are the terminal cones at the very tip of a bine that have small leaves protruding from the cone itself. In the hops industry, they call these small leaves ‘angel wings’ .
This typically occurs when your plant has absorbed an excess of nitrogen at the wrong time during the hops season.
Hops need a lot of nitrogen during thier growth stage and up until about the summer solstice, which is June 21st in the US and the Northern hemisphere. After this date, your plants will typically begin to branch and then bloom. During this flowering period, the nitrogen requirements of your plants diminish greatly.
Adding too much nitrogen during flower stage will only create more leaves. And always remember, we want to create hops cones, not hops leaves !!

hopsbrasil hints

FAMILY – Cannabinaceae
GENUS – Humulus
SPECIES – Lupulus
VARIETY -?????

Almost everyone has heard of the “genus and species”, which is the scientific name and classification of any certain living creature.
Hops are part of the larger family cannabinaceae family of plants which includes a close cousin, genus cannibas ( marijuana).
The genus of hops is Humulus and the species is lupulus.
We can further separate hops into 5 sub-categories which are called varieties. In this case we are not discussing individual different types of hops such as CASCADE or MAGNUM for example. In scientific terms, these are actually called cultivars. ( not varieties).
The varieties that we discuss here are sub- species based on physiological differences (the way the plants look and grow) in the plants and where they grow.

The five subspecies of hops are:

    1. Humulus lupulus var. lupulus
    2. Humulus lupulus var. cordifolius
    3. Humulus lupulus var. neomexicanus
    4. Humulus lupulus var. pubescens
    5. Humulus lupulus var. lupuloides

Each variety is native to a certain area of the world.

  • Var. lupulus – Western Asia/Europe
  • Var. cordifulus – Central/Eastern Asia
  • Var. neomexicanus – Western US
  • Var. pubescens – Central US
  • Var. lupuloides – Canada and Eastern US

Humulus lupulus var. lupulus is the most common variety used in beer making, but other varieties of wild hops have been used in many breeding programs to create some of the most noteworthy hops in the world!
This picture is of leaves from our male variety neomexicanus ‘ ROCKY’ and our female variety lupulus ‘ALPHAROMA’ .

HOPSPRO TIP # 27 - HUMULUS LUPULUS variety ( subspecies) PUBESCENS
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As part of our hops breeding program, we have acquired from the USDA ‘humulus lupulus variety pubescens’ that we will be using for making crosses in order to create better hops to be grown in Brazil.
Hops have 5 actual subspecies of the genus and species humulus lupulus. (SEE TIP# 26).
In scientific terms these subspecies are commonly called varieties. ( as opposed to varieties of hops such as cascade or nugget).

As opposed to humulus lupulus variety( subspecies) lupulus, which is native to the Eastern hemisphere, is the most common subspecies of hops that are used to make beer. As opposed to humulus lúpulos var. lupulus, which is called the ‘common hop’, var. pubescens is a subspecies of hops that as far as we know, has never been used commercially to make beer.
It is a wild hop that typically grows and has been found in the central and Eastern parts of the USA.
In order to discern the some of the physical differences between humulus lupulus pubescens and other hops, we must look at the bottom of the leaves.
All hops typically have small hairs on the underside of the leaves along the main and side stems of the leaves. The variety pubescens is the ‘hairiest’ of the five subspecies of hops with typically over 100 small hairs per centimeter along the main stem of the leaves. This is compared to 20-30 hairs along the main stem on the ‘common hops’. Pubescens’ hops even have hairs on the leaf itself !
A very interesting side effect as a result of all of these small hairs is the possibility of a certain ‘immunity’ to spider mites and aphids. Apparently the small hairs act as a shield that prevents these small bugs from access the glands of the leaf!
By selecting these positive phenotypes (physical characteristics) in our new hips babies, we can breed new hops varieties that are naturally better adapted to combat these bugs!

hopsbrasil hints

A hermaphrodite is an organism that has male and female reproductive organs.
Typically, hops are a dioecious plant which is a condition in which male and female reproductive organs are found in two different plants.
Sometimes a hop plant can produce male and female sex organs in the same plant. This is called hermaphroditism
In the case of hops, it is not really a problem, but, it can be a sign of stress on the plant. And some varieties are more succecptible than others to this phenomenon.
Unlike a close cousin to hops, cannibas, it is generally accepted that a hops hemaphrodite does not produce pollin that is viable to make seeds.
Here are pictures of one of our biggest plants in the hopyard today … a Zeus … It has many branches and cones. She also has a lot of masculine flowers.
Many people have said to cut the hemaphrodite plants, but, we have hermaphrodites every year and I never had a seed because of them yet! And we do remove these plants if they are good plants otherwise, with good production and aromas.

Observação: O envio de comprovante serve somente para agilizar o processo de confirmação. O seu pedido só será liberado quando o depósito/boleto compensar em nossa conta.

Olá! Como podemos ajudá-lo?
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